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Function-oriented Knowledge Base \ Electronic paper \ Improve image quality of paper-like display

Electrode matrix records fixed and moving images in electrophoretic layer

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Introduction
Flat-panel light-emitting diode and liquid crystal displays may have a large size, but they are insufficiently effective in memorizing or recording the displayed images. Conventional methods of forming images for long-term storage are based on electrophoresis. In electrophoretic printing, charged pigment particles contained in a suspension layer may be transferred to the surface of an electrode or a paper-like sheet and reproduce a pattern corresponding to the spatial distribution of an input electric field or an input light image in a manner similar to that of electrophotography. Applying a voltage distribution inverse to the initial voltages to the produced image may erase the image. However, such systems are designed to reproduce only permanent visible images, not changeable display systems. In addition, electrophoretic printing systems do not provide any variation in the optical reflective property of the suspension itself when a change is made in the spatial distribution of electrophoretic particles in this suspension. The image depends upon the shape of the electrode, so the medium with an electrode pattern must be changed for each new picture. It is necessary to record and display both moving and fixed images by means of an electrophoretic suspension layer in a large, flat and flexible display.
 
Description
To record moving and fixed pictures in an electrophoretic layer, using an electrode matrix is proposed. The electrode matrix is comprised of two flat sets of insulated strip electrodes. The planes of the electrode sets are parallel and separated by an electrophoretic layer. The electrodes from the two sets orthogonally intersect. The intersections between the electrodes divide the image into picture elements (i.e., pixels). The pixels may be addressably chosen by applying addressing voltages to a pair of intersecting electrodes that corresponds to the pixel. It is possible to change or sustain the state of the pixels within the entire electrophoretic layer by scanning the electrode matrix with the addressing voltages. After the voltages are removed, the state of the pixel is preserved, thereby preserving the newly formed image. The electrode matrix thus forms and records images of an arbitrary shape.
 
Additional information
White pigment particles are typically made from titanium dioxide. Black color may be obtained through the addition of black acetylene particles. The suspending liquid may (for example) be linseed oil. Pigment particles of other colors may be used as well. The thickness of the electrophoretic layer is 25-100 micrometers. The voltage is 25-400 V. At a frequency below 20 Hertz, the color of the image changes from white to black at the same frequency. Varying the direct voltage or the direct voltage pulse width makes it possible to arbitrarily change the lightness of the electrophoretic layer on one of the electrodes. During color switching, the average current is 4*10-9 Amperes per cm2 of the cell. The desired color remains after switching off the voltage at the required moment of time. The contrasting pigments may be of other colors. When the transmission colors of the transparent walls of three adjacent pixels correspond to the three primary colors (red, green, and blue), the display is capable of reproducing and storing color images. Under this condition, only one suspension that changes the color in the shades of the gray scale between black and white may be utilized.
 
Reference
US Patent 3668106; Link >>
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